PEPSIN - The key ingredient for a healthy digestive process.
What is Pepsin?
  • The most important digestive enzyme that is released in the stomach as pepsinogen.
  • A form of protein.
  • It is produced in an inactive form, and is activated by hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach.
  • When pepsinogen is exposed to the hydrochloric acid in the stomach, the pepsinogen unfolds and breaks into pepsin.

Human pepsin A was the first enzyme to be discovered. Soon after its discovery in 1836 by Theodor Schwann, pepsin was shown to break down proteins. Its name relates to this function, deriving from the Greek word pepsis, "to digest."

What are the functions of Pepsin?
  • The main function of pepsin is to break down proteins that are found in foods such as meat and eggs into smaller pieces.

    1.Proteins are molecules composed of large chains of amino acids, which are bound together by peptide bonds.

    2.Small chains of amino acids are known as peptides, while larger chains are referred to as polypeptides.

    3.Amino acids and small peptides are absorbed by the intestinal linings and used as fuel, or as the building blocks for new proteins.

  • Pepsin requires an acidic pH, ideally 2, in order to break down proteins. The low pH environment denatures the proteins, changing their shape and exposing the peptide bonds for pepsin to break.
  • Enzymes catalyse reactions to make them happen faster.
  • Proteases are enzymes that degrade proteins.
  • Pepsin is the digestive protease that triggers protein degradation in the stomach.
  • It breaks down proteins only at certain points, so the protein is not digested completely to the amino acid level. In order for that to occur, the food has to pass into the small intestines, where other enzymes such as chymotrypsin and trypsin are present to help complete the digestion process.

    1.All of these enzymes have specific requirements for their targets, and will only attack proteins at the site of particular amino acids - such as the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tryptophan, or tyrosine, in the case of pepsin.

    2.One misinterpretation that involves pepsin is the idea that hydrochloric acid is what breaks down food in the stomach. The fact is, hydrochloric acid has two functions.

    i. First, it reconstructs the shape of the protein bonds. This process is known as denaturisation. This leaves the protein bonds exposed.

    ii. Secondly, hydrochloric acid causes pepsinogen to be transformed into pepsin.

    With the protein bonds exposed and a supply of pepsin present in the stomach, the proteins then can be broken into polypeptides. Hydrochloric acid thus encourages digestion but does not actually break down food proteins.

    3. Antacids and Pepsin

  • Pepsin depends on a low pH level in order to work. Antacids, however, increases the pH level of the gastric juices to a level that is not ideal for pepsin to function. Since pepsin is required to break down proteins into polypeptides, those who take over-the-counter or prescription antacids actually may be doing more harm than good because they may be slowing down a part of the digestive process.
  • Additionally, it is thought that some food allergies are related to partially digested proteins passing through the intestinal wall. Since antacids decrease the effectiveness of pepsin, thereby increasing the number of partially digested proteins that can pass through to the intestine, it can be concluded that antacids actually increases the risk of food allergy development.

Pepsin + Betaine Anhydrous + Quercetin + Bromelain ------------> Aids digestion + Lowers homocysteine

(taken in between every meal thrice a day)
What is Homocysteine?
  • An amino acid (one of the building blocks that make up proteins) found in the blood.
  • Acquired mostly from eating meat.
How and when homocysteine levels rises?
  • Levels of this substance can become elevated due to insufficient intake of certain nutrients, such as some B vitamins.
  • A hereditary condition called homocystinuria causes homocysteine to accumulate in the blood in toxic levels. The condition is present at birth and involves an inability to break down homocystine.
High levels of homocysteine are related to
  • Early development of heart and blood vessel disease.
  • Considered as an independent risk factor for heart disease.
  • Low levels of vitamin B6, B12, and folate.
  • Renal disease.

It is said that doctors aren't sure how homocysteine increases the risk of heart and blood vessel disease but there appears to be a link between high homocysteine levels and damage to the arteries, causing atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and the formation of blood clots.

Quercetin + Bromelain ---------> A powerful team
What is Quercetin?
  • Water-soluble substance that gives certain fruits and vegetables their coloring, explains the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
  • Contains as bioflavonoids (which gives the antioxidant properties)
  • Found in small doses in beans and leafy green vegetables, but in larger amounts in onions, apples, grapefruits, red wine, buckwheat, green tea and black tea.
Benefits of Quercetin
  • Increasing cardiovascular health through inhibiting the oxidizing of your bad cholesterol
  • Reducing free radical damage as a naturally-occurring but potent antioxidant
  • Minimizing bruising, reducing varicose veins while strengthening weak capillaries
  • Suppresses histamine response that causes allergic reactions
  • Improving and protecting lungs, possible treating a broad array of respiratory conditions (asthma, bronchitis, emphysema)
  • Combating cancer, in particular evidence thus far is more promising for prostate cancer
  • Curbing allergic reactions, particularly respiratory allergies
What is Bromelain?
  • A digestive enzyme naturally found in the stems of pineapples.

The medicinal benefits of pineapple have been known and recommended in South American and Central American cultures for hundreds of years.

Benefits of Bromelain
  • Bromelain, like protease and lipase, is a protein-digesting natural enzyme.
  • Anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Bromelain functions as an enzyme and protein, limiting the action of metabolites and neutrophils on inflammation.
  • Assists in increasing body's absorption and utilization of quercetin.

Bromelain first found use as a therapy in Hawaii in 1957. Since then the research of this digestive enzyme has spread throughout the world.

What is Trimethylgylcine (Betaine)?
  • Nutrient known as a methyl donor. Methyl donors carry and donate methyl molecules, an activity important for cellular reproduction and chemical processes in the body, explains the University of Maryland Medical Center, or UMMC.
  • Trimethylglycine occurs in beets, broccoli, spinach, grains and shellfish.
Benefits of TMG
  • Decreases high levels of homocysteine
  • Doctors prescribe trimethylglycine to treat homocystinuria, according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health at its MedlinePlus website.
  • Animal research indicates that trimethylglycine may have protective effects on the liver and could prevent fatty liver deposits, according to UMMC
Available Formulation
  • Vegetable Capsule Pepsin custom made.
  • Tablet TMG 1200mg (Betaine Anhydrous) (30 tabs)
  • Capsule J-Flex 500mg (Quercetin Bromelain) (90 caps)

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